References

As you will notice from the listings shown below, very few works deal exclusively with officially sealed labels, but many of them may have a page or two on the subject. Try using the Windows search function ("Control" + "F") to find your country of interest.

Collectors of postal seals will want to subscribe to Jim Drummond's "The Official Seal Newsletter," published quarterly. Each full color issue averages 15 pages, and some issues include actual seals from different countries. See contact information below.

Some of these titles should be available from philatelic literature dealers, or copies might be found by searching the American Philatelic Research Library web site.



Aldrich, E. R, "Official Seals," The Boston Stamp Book, Volume 1, No, 6, Boston, MA: A. L. Cassino and Co., October 20,1895.

Askins, Arthur L., "Official Business Cash Registration Seals," From The Dragon's Den, The Ryukyu Philatelic Specialist Society, Ltd., Vol 10 No. 2 & 3, Jun/Sep 1979: 80-98. Initial study of the seven different types of cash registration and repair seals used during the period of US administration of the islands from August 1945 until May 15, 1972. The focus of this first article is on the Official Business Cash Registration Seals, Askins numbers SOF1 to SOF15, used on official business covers mailed between post offices that contained cash.

---. "Official Repair Seals," From The Dragon's Den, The Ryukyu Philatelic Specialist Society, Ltd., Vol 26 No. 1, Jan 2005: 3-31. Contains detailed discussion of the repair seals, Askins SRE and SRJ numbers. The first type were intended for use on international mails, the later for domestic.

---. "Official Business Postal Savings Cash Registration Seals," From The Dragon's Den, The Ryukyu Philatelic Specialist Society, Ltd., Vol 31 No. 1, Mar 2011: 39-45. Information about Askins types SOSF1 and SOSF2, used on official business covers containing cash deposits received at local post offices from depositors into the Postal Savings System.

Beal, James H. and Fred G. Ingham, "Official Seals - Cerrado y Sellado - Closed and Sealed," Mexicana, Mexico-Elmhurst Philatelic Society International, July, 1968: 495-497. Discusses and illustrates the first 16 recorded official seals of Mexico.

---. "Additions to Official Seals - Cerrado y Sellado - Closed and Sealed," Mexicana, Mexico-Elmhurst Philatelic Society International, October, 1971: 629. Adds and illustrates five more official seals of Mexico to the previous listings.

Bileski, Kasimir, et al, Unitrade Specialized Catalogue of Canadian Stamps 1997, Toronto, Ontario: The Unitrade Press, 1996. 552 pages. See "Officially Sealed Stamps" of Canada on pages 432-433, and "Officially Sealed" listing of Newfoundland on page 537.

Brofos, Frederick A., "Norwegian Post Office Letter Seals," The Posthorn, Scandinavian Collector's Club, 24.2, April, 1967: 30-32. Discusses and illustrates twelve different seals from Norway, including "POSTOBLAT" labels.

---. "Scandinavian Post Office Letter Seals," The Posthorn, Scandinavian Collector's Club, 24.3, July, 1967: 52-56. Follow-up article to "Norwegian Post Office Letter Seals" covering seals from the Danish West Indies, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden.

Bustamante, Juan G., ed, Catálogo Especializado de las Estampillas del Perú "Bustamante" Tomo II,1981, Lima, Peru: Casa Filatélica Bustamante, 1981. In Spanish. See pages 3-16 in volume 2 for comprehensive illustrated listing of 55 different Peruvian seals issued up to 1972. See also Nicoletti.

Canada Post, "Damaged Mail," Corporate Manual System (2001.04), PDF file. April, 2001. Document No. 1603.01. Retrieved June 19, 2002 < http://hs.cupw.ca/pdfs/1603-01-eng.pdf >. Interesting Canada Post document regarding the proper handling of damaged mail items.

Chang, Paul Ke-Shing, History of Postal Cancellation of China: Part IX, San Francisco, CA: Author, 1995. 665 pages. Bilingual Chinese/English. See chapter 61, "Received Broken and Officially Resealed" Mark, pages 613-665, for a thorough discussion of Imperial & Republic period markings, covers, and labels. Required reading.

Christianson, Jon, "Canadian Typeset Official Seals," The Canadian Philatelist, Royal Philatelic Society of Canada, 35.5, September-October, 1984: 347-352. Discusses and illustrates the 24 different Canadian typeset seals.

Christie's Robson Lowe New York, "United States Proofs, Stamps and Covers" Sale RLNY 46 auction catalog, sale date September 28, 1988, Christie, New York, NY: Manson, & Woods International, Inc., 1987. See the "Post Office Seals" section, lots 1829-1963A, on pages 119-134. Outstanding US seal collection of Jon Christianson, one of the most important collectors in the field, including many rarities. Singles, blocks, covers, essays, and proofs listed. Many lots illustrated. An essential reference.

Cox, H. R., "Etiquettes de reparation dites TIMBRES DE RETOUR, noir et blanc," L'Orient Philatelique, January 1937: 24-29. Discusses and illustrates the first eight Egyptian seals, including a detailed table of the printings. In French.

Drummond, James N., Official Seals of the World, Porter Ranch, CA: Author, 2007. 610 pages. 1st edition. Priced catalog of officially sealed labels from over 150 countries. Full color. Many on cover values. This work should be in the library on any serious collector or dealer. Essential. Click here for catalog information.

---., ed, "The Official Seal Newsletter," whole numbers 1-18. Quarterly newsletter of seals of the world. Contains in-depth articles and is required reading for any official seal collector. Dead letter labels, telegram seals, and rubber stamped markings are also covered.

Feltus, Peter R., Catalogue of Egyptian Revenue Stamps with Sudanese Revenues & Egyptian Cinderellas, Southfield, MI: Postilion Publications, 1982. 209 pages. See pages 192-196 for listings of Egyptian interpostal seals and officially sealed labels.

Garcia-Frutos, Silvia, Ignacio Prats, and Alfredo Valdes, "Sellado Oficial - Official Sealing." The Cuban Philatelist, Cuban Philatelic Society of America, July-August, 1994: 32-43. Excellent detailed article discussing seven different Cuban official seals, on and off-cover.

Gerlach, William, "Official Seals of the US and its Possessions," bound exhibition photocopy, 1994. 153 pages. Interesting United States post office seal exhibit including essays, proofs, covers, a few U.S. Postage Stamp Agency seals (Scott #OXF), some typeset seals, and ending with a few Canal Zone and Philippine Islands seals.

Hansen, Kurt, "Returpostkontorets brevlukkemærker," Nordisk Filatelistisk Tidsskrift, January, 2004: 4-14, 18. Detailed illustrated article on Danish Returned Letter Office seals (in Danish).

Hansen, Kurt and John R. Sabin, The Return Post of the Danish Postal Service, Gainesville, FL: JRS Publishing, 2007. 95 pages. English translation of five articles originally published in 2004 & 2005 in Nordisk Filatelistisk Tidsskrift, the journal of the Kjøbenhavns Filatelistisk Tidsskrift. Contents include chapters on Dead Letter Office Reseal Labels, International Return Labels for undeliverable postal items, and Postal Service Return Envelopes. All color illustrations. Essential for collectors of Danish seals.

Harmers of London Stamp Auctioneers Ltd., "Crash, Wreck and Disaster Mail, Stamp Boxes, Great Britain, Foreign Countries, and British Commonwealth," Auction Nos. 4613 & 4614 catalog, sale date January 26-17, 1994, London, England, 1993. Includes the C. Hardeman Smith collection of 317 lots of crash, wreck and disaster mail of the world on pages 3-33. Many black & white photographed.

---. "Collections, Foreign Countries, Postal Scale & Stamp Boxes, Great Britain, and British Commonwealth," Auction No. 4682 catalog, sale date February 10, 2000, London, England, 2000. Includes the "J.U." collection of 102 lots of officially sealed mails of the world. Lots 108-210, pages 11-17, many color photographed.

---. "Wreck, Crash, Balloon Post and Disaster Mail," Auction No. 4698 catalog, sale date December 6, 2001, London, England, 2001. 692 lots of the G. Howard Longden collection. A good sellection of officially sealed items included, many color photographed.

---. "The Günther Heyd Disaster Mail Collection," Auction No. 4706 catalog, sale date October 22, 2002, London, England, 2002. 571 lots of wreck covers, including many officially sealed items. Color photos tipped in. Also a highlight of the sale was lot #2097, a mail slip recovered from the body of O.S. Woody, the mail clerk on the Titanic. Estimated at £500, the lot realized an astonishing £11,763!

Harmers of New York, Inc. "United States, British Commonwealth and Foreign" auction catalog, sale date November 16-17, 1988, New York, NY, 1988. Forty four lots of USA seals and proofs, including a few typesets, on and off cover. Most illustrated.

Hill, Lee H., Jr., ed, Ma's Illustrated Catalogue of the Stamps of China: Volume I - Empire - 1878-1911., Tampa, FL: Hill-Donnelly Corporation, 1994. 202 pages. See page 202 listing of "Officially Sealed" Stamps.

Hoggarth, Norman, and Robin Gwynn, Maritime Disaster Mail, Bristol, England: The Stuart Rossiter Trust Fund, 2003. 352 pages. Important new work on salvaged shipwreck mails. Greatly updates the "Casualties at Sea" chapter of Hopkins book (see below).

Hopkins, Adrian E., A History of Wreck Covers, London, England: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1970. 180 pages. Excellent, though somewhat dated review of salvaged covers from incidents on water, land, and air, many of which are officially sealed.

Johnson, Malcolm, "The Post Office Seals," China Clipper, China Stamp Society, XVIII.2, January, 1954: 30-31. Discusses and illustrates seven different types of Imperial and Republic of China period post office seals.

---. "The Post Office Seals - Continued," China Clipper, China Stamp Society, XIX.1, November, 1954: 1, 3-5, and 9. Revises previous article and adds newly discovered Republic of China period seals.

---. "The Post Office Seals," China Clipper, China Stamp Society, XX.6, September, 1955: 6. Adds three newly discovered late Republic of China period seals.

Kehr, Ernest A., The Interpostal Seals of Egypt, 1864-1891, New York, NY: Author, 1943. 61 pages. Booklet bringing together serial articles published by Weekly Philatelic Gossip in 1942, including corrections and additions.

Daniel F. Kelleher Co., Inc., "United States Stamps," 519th Sale auction catalog, sale date March 1-2, 1974, Boston, MA, 1974. Includes "probably the Finest collection of POST OFFICE SEALS inc. many proofs, covers, inc. trial colors, essays, varieties galore. Many Great Rarities & Unique Seals". 149 lots, most illustrated.

---. "United States and Foreign Stamps, Covers and U.S. Revenues," 593rd Sale auction catalog, sale date March 16, 1993, Boston, MA, 1993. Sixteen lots, including the rare top pane of 15 OXF1 registry seal, some illustrations.

King, Gerald M., "Alice through the Pillar-Box and What She Found There. A Philatelic Fantasy by Gerald M. King (with a little assistance from Lewis Carroll and Sir John Tenniel," Wizzard Press, in association with Andre Deutsch Ltd., London. 1978. 38 pages. See page 5 for another Wonderland DLO cover. This work should have a place in any Cinderella collector's library.

---. "Alice: The Millennium Collection, Priced Catalogue for the postage Stamps of Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land, Phantasmagoria Security Printing Co. Wonderland, June 2000. 20 pages". The Dodo Dead Letter Office label is listed on page 8. Another must have booklet to have for the Cinderella collector!

Konwiser, Harry M., "Dead Letter Office History and Markings," S.P.A. Journal, Society of Philatelic Americans, 6.10, June, 1944: 333-339. Included in this early article are United States Post Office Department Dead Letter seals, unlisted by Scott, and POD Division of Dead Letters seals, which are now Scott listed under OXA numbers.

Kotanchik, Jim, "The Official Seals of Egypt," exhibition photocopy, 2002. 16 pages. Excellent 1-frame exhibit of of Egyptian seals, including very scarce on-cover usages and five different complete panes of 20.

---. "The Official Seals of Egypt," The Congress Book 2004, Sacramento, CA: The American Philatelic Congress, Inc., 2004. See pages 159-178 for a thorough study of Egypian official seals. Includes a detailed table of printing data and a checklist of the repair seals with values.

---. Post Office Seals of the United States and Possessions, Indianapolis, IN: Bookmasters, Inc., 2006. 349 pages. The new definitive work. Essential reference for every serious official seal collector. Numerous illustrations throughout, most in color.

---. A Priced Catalog of Chinese Official Seals, West Acton, MA: Self-published, 2010. Over 70 pages. Comprehensive new book on the seals of mainland China. Values for seals, covers, and panes. 300+ color illustrations.

London Stamp Exchange Ltd., "Postal History of the World" auction catalog, sale date March 16, 2001, East Sussex, England, 2001. Includes Professor John C. West's collection of officially sealed mails of the world. Lots 1-174, pages 1-12, a few of which are color photographed on inside cover.

Nicoletti, Carlos G., "Clasificacion de los Cierres oficiales del Peru." 9 pages. Mr. Nicoletti's groundbreaking study of Peruvian official seals.

---. "Los Cierres Oficiales del Peru," Filatelia Peruana, Asociación Filitélica Peruana, XXVI.104-108, October-December, 1974. Series of articles, the basis for the Peruvian official seal listings in volume 2 of the 1981 Bustamante catalog. See also Bustamante.

---. "Cierres Oficiales." Filatelia Peruana, Asociación Filitélica Peruana, 54.163/164, July-December, 2003: 17. Short article about the POSeal.com website and the author's ongoing attempt to update and expand the Bustamante listings of Peruvian seals.

Nierinck, Henri L., Recovered Mail Airplane Crashes 1918-1978, Antwerp, Belgium: R-Editions, 1984. 367 pages. Some of the crash covers illustrated show official seals.

---. Courrier Recupere / Recovered Mail 1910-1936, Roeselare, Belgium: Concordia b.vb.a., 1992. 576 pages. As above, now greatly updated and expanded into two volumes.

---. Courrier Recupere / Recovered Mail 1937-1988, Roeselare, Belgium: Concordia b.vb.a., 1995. 496 pages. See above.

Oranje, Hendrik J., People's Republic of China Officially Sealed Labels - Preliminary listing and Pricelist, Gouda, The Netherlands: D & O Trading, undated. 22 pages. Catalog listing of 60 different People's Republic seals.

---. People's Republic of China Officially Sealed Labels - First Supplement - Provisional listing and Pricelist, Gouda, The Netherlands: D & O Trading, undated. 12 pages. Catalog listing of 35 additional People's Republic seals not covered in the preliminary listings.

Orsetti, Philippe, "Officially Sealed Labels," Hong Kong Study Circle Newsletter, Hong Kong Study Circle, 280, January, 1992: 1-9 plus three photoplates. Excellent study of all known types of Hong Kong seals and tapes.

Padget, Peter I., "Locally Produced Officially Sealed Labels." Journal of Chinese Philately, China Philatelic Society of London, 9.4, April, 1962: 59. Another short article on Imperial Chinese "Officially Sealed Labels", by "D.R.", is also included on the same page.

---. "The Post Office Seals," China Clipper, China Stamp Society, XXX.6, September, 1965: 94-95. Updates Malcolm Johnson's earlier China Clipper articles and adds two more Republic of China period seals to the previous listings.

---. "The Post Office Seals of the People's Republic," Journal of Chinese Philately, China Philatelic Society of London, 29, February, 1982: 52-53. Discusses and illustrates four People's Republic and one Taiwan official seal.

---. "The Post Office Seals of the People's Republic," Journal of Chinese Philately, China Philatelic Society of London, 30, December, 1982: 29-33. Discusses and illustrates 17 People's Republic and seven Sinkiang Province bilingual Chinese/Uighur (Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region) official seals.

Perkal, Adam, and Seymour Kazman, The Post Office Seals of the United States - Volume One: The Regular Issues, Santa Monica, CA: George Alevizos, 1983. 161 pages. Although now somewhat dated by Jim Kotanchik's new "Post Office Seals of the United States and Possessions," this work is still a must have for US seal collectors. The second volume on the typeset issues was never published.

Ren, Er Qin, "The Post Office Seals of China - Part I," Stamps World, Issue #38, 1985(?): E20-E22. Covers the two different Imperial China official seals.

Rich, Stephen G. Philately of the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902, Kalamazoo, MI: Chambers Publishing Company, 1943. 226 pages. See pages 104-106 for a discussion and example of an officially sealed "looted" mail item.

Schumann, Alexander, Special Catalogue of the Stamps of Manchukuo, Shanghai, China: Schumann, 1941. 86 pages. Manchukuo specialized catalog in English. See pages 81-84 for official seal listings.

Shimomura, Masaya, ed, Standard Catalogue of the Japanese Revenue Stamps 2003, Tokyo, Japan: Fukuo Limited, 2003. 305 pages. Includes an eleven page listing of Japanese and Ryukyuan postal seals.

Shreves Philatelic Galleries, Inc., "The Larry Lyons Collection," auction catalog, sale dates January 21-22, 2000, Dallas, TX, 1999. See "Post Office Seals" section, lots 755-783, on pages 179-189 for a selection of rare United States typeset official seals on and off cover, including the unique recently discovered Scott #LOX30 Los Angeles, CA cover.

Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries, Inc., "United States Stamps and Covers," Sale 775 auction catalog, sale dates April 23-25, 1996. See lots 1747-1792 on pages 167-173 for an outstanding selection of United States typeset seals, on and off-cover.

Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries, Inc., "United States and Foreign Stamps," Sale 838 Internet auction, sale dates June 19-20, 2001. Retrieved June 13, 2002 < http://www.siegelauctions.com/2001/838/s838.htm >. See "Official Seals" section, lots 989-992, for four different panes of 10 of US Scott#OX19, the scarce Quartermaster General's Office seal. All scanned in color.

Singer, Peter, ed, Japanese Postal Issues and Overprints of the Occupied Territories, British Colonies 1942-1945, Clovis, CA: Moon Tree Publishing Company, 1995.

Snee, Charles, ed, Scott 2015 Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps & Covers, Ninety-Third Edition, Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Company, 2014. See "Post Office Seals" section beginning on page 927. Lists and values on and off cover US official seals. New edition released each October.

Snowden, Neil, and Derek Hepworth, The Censor Seals of the Anglo-Boer War 1899 to 1902, Somerset, England: Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society, 1987. 108 pages. See pages 2.2-2.5 for treatment of the Boer Type 1 "Ambtshalve Gesloten" ("Officially Closed") censor seal, and pages 3.2 and 3.11-3.14 for discussion of British Types 1A through 1E "OFFICIALLY SEALED" provisional censor seals.

Sotheby Parke Bernet Stamp Auction Co., Inc., "United States, British, and Foreign Postage Stamps," Sale 4012 auction catalog, sale dates July 13-15, 1977, Danbury, CT, 1977. See lots 675-790 on pages 45-52 for excellent US official seal trial color and large die proofs, as well as singles, blocks, and a rare double impression Scott #OXF1 registry seal.

Topper, Jonathan, "Dead Letter Office Labels," The Postal Label Bulletin, Postal Label Study Group, Bulletin #55, April, 1999: 6. Discusses the different types of Dead Letter Office seals used by the United States Post Office Department during the 1890's to record dead letters in the post office ledgers. These are listed by Scott with an "OXA" prefix.

Van Dieten Stamp Auctions, "Stamp Auction 595," catalog, sale date May 27, 2004, The Hague, 2004. Includes the Willem Baron Six van Osterleek Disaster Mail Collection, lots 5483-6020. One of the largest sales of crash and wreck mails offered in recent years. Many lots of officially sealed material.

Various authors, "Officially Sealed Notes," Official Seal Study Group, whole numbers 1-56, November, 1977 to July, 1997. Copies of this now defunct group's journal are an essential resource for anyone interested in official seals of the world. This is where most new seal discoveries were published. See also "The Official Seal Newsletter."

Wegner, Thomas R., The Washington D.C., Dead Letter Office to 1920 - A Monograph of Postal History, Charlotte, NC: Novus Debut / Envision, 1994. 158 pages. See chapter 15, page 142, for discussion and illustrations of United States Dead Letter Office labels.

Wetterling, J.G., Handbook and Checklist of Chinese Revenue Stamps Part 4, Oakland, CA: by the author, circa 1999. Number of pages unknown. See pages 17-20 for listing of 21 Imperial and Republic seals.

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Updated September 26, 2015